A Trip Down Memory Lane: Season One of The X-Files (part 2)

Yesterday I posted about my first close encounter (har har) with invertebrates on The X-Files.  Ice (S1 E8) is a great episode that should be on everyone’s list of must see episodes.  But season one isn’t done with us just yet.  There is still some buggy goodness to be found in the spooky stories to be told.  In fact, there are two episodes for me to elaborate upon…well, three but that last one doesn’t count…sort of.

Next up…

The X-Files: Season 1: Episode 18: Miracle Man

Basic Premise:  People died! Mulder & Scully to investigate!  This time it’s a faith healing teen and his preacher dad in the middle of it.  Was someone murdered?  Who did it?  Where’s the healer kid?  WTF is going on!?!

This episode doesn’t really focus on bugs really, but they do play a small part.  While in court, the room is swarmed with grasshoppers.  There is a shot of the judge being swarmed by grasshoppers as well as a nice pile of crickets on his desk.  Cut to the courtroom and its filled with some real and many CGI swarming grasshoppers.  This is meant to serve as a representation of one of the 10 plagues of Egypt from the Old Testament.  In fact the next scene is Mulder reading the passage to Scully.  Surprise!  She was raised Catholic and knows all about locusts and plagues.  But did-ya-know that the grasshoppers that were swarming were the only ‘locusts’ in that courtroom?  Crickets are not locusts.  And for you Mid-Westerners out there, Cicadas are not locusts either.

S1 E18: Miracle Man He’s covered in locusts! Okay, less than ten…but creepy bugs right? A plague, a plague!

The Science of the Episode: The insects themselves don’t play any real part in the underlying plot but they are instrumental in moving it along and ultimately solving the crime.  The ultimate logic (again, avoiding too many spoilers) is the insects were lured into the courtroom for nefarious purposes.  Not, as divine retribution as is initially believed.  The items used to lure the critters in I doubt would do the trick, but the premise is solid.  Given the right conditions they could have been coaxed in there.  Good job writers!

This was another great episode as it begins to build some in depth back story for Mulder (beyond basic exposition) and is more Law & Order-like, than Unsolved Mysteries.  It actually feels more like an episode of Scooby Doo for grown ups with some elements of supernatural woo.  But not too much.  The elements of woo are minimal and can be explained logically within the framework of the episode.  I love that about the first few seasons of the show.  Overall, a good episode, not the greatest but I do enjoy it.  It’s in my top 10 for the season.

The next episode to feature creepy crawlies has been one of my favorites of the whole series.  I want to give it its own post so I’ll hold off on that until tomorrow.  So I’m going to skip and make a brief mention about the fourth arthropod-related reference in season one.

Season 1 Episode 21: Tooms

I won’t go into the plot because it has nothing to do with bugs.  Not one bit.  It does have to do with a creepy Captain Fantastic-like man who eats human liver.  No word on the inclusion of fava beans and a nice Chianti though.

So, where does the bug reference come into play?  A nicely built up scene where Mulder sleeps on his couch while Tooms is slowly sneaking into his apartment.  Why was Mulder on the couch?  As far as we know he doesn’t acquire an actual bed until many seasons into the show…but I digress.  This great scene, were we anxiously await to see if Mulder will wake up in time to thwart Tooms is juxtaposed by a scene from a classic science fiction film playing on the TV.  That’s right.  It’s the original The Fly.

That’s it.  See you next season.

That movie poster is simply amazing. I need it.

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The Black Death: Do Fleas Really Deserve All the Blame?

The Black Death was one of the most devastating events in history.   Originating from central Asia, it is believed to have traveled along the Silk Road until it reached the Crimea around the mid-1340’s.  From there it spread to become a pandemic in the truest sense of the word.  The Black Death was responsible for the deaths of an estimated 30-60% of the European population, and as many as 100 million deaths worldwide.   You all probably know this much already.  You also probably know that this was vectored via the Oriental rat flea (Xenopsylla cheopis) living on black rats that made their way on merchant ships in the Mediterranean initially and then ventured north.  The Oriental rat flea is a nasty bugger, vectoring not just the plague (Yersinia pestis) but also Rickettsia typhi, and tapeworms.  But what if we can scratch one of those off that list?

Oriental Rat Flea

Skeletons unearthed a year ago during a work on a new rail line in London are shedding new light on some of our well established ideas regarding our not-too-distant past.  The bones were believed to be from a cemetery of plague victims.  Molars were removed from the skeletons and DNA then extracted from the teeth.  The plague bacterium was found in several of the teeth, indicating these individuals were exposed to and most likely died from the Black Death.  These results are not unexpected, of course so researchers continued to “dig”.  Archaeologists, geologists, historians, physicists, and microbiologists worked to better understand the circumstances surrounding these individuals lives and deaths.

They were generally poor people showing clear signs of malnutrition, and a history of hard labor.  One may have even been a vegetarian later in their life, possibly indicating a shift to monastic life at some point.  Not completely surprising considering the land was at one time part of a monastery.  These plague victims didn’t come from the same time period either.  With radiocarbon dating indicated the graveyard was used multiple times between the earliest outbreaks (1348-1350) and later ones in 1361 and the early 15th century.  Archaeologists are planning on more digs as they estimate the total number of bodies may number anywhere in the “low thousands”.

Black death researchers extracted plague DNA from 14th century skulls found in east London. Photograph: Philip Toscano/PA

But that’s not the whole story, not by a long shot.  I may be an history buff but I’m also a buggy person right?  So why would I be blogging about this if there were not some new interesting entomological tidbits to be shared?  Because I’m bored, yeah….fascinated with dead things, yeah…but there is buggy stuff to share!  Traditionally the belief has been that the Black Death was spread via the Oriental rat flea, as stated earlier.  But evidence derived from those teeth suggest that this may not be the case; or at least not always the case.

When researchers compared the genome from the molar-derived bacterium with that of more recent plague victims they found the genome largely unchanged.  The recent outbreaks of the plague such as in Madagascar last year saw the majority of deaths from a pneumonic or pulmonary plague.  This new information suggests that the transmission of the plague was likely not just via the rat flea but also likely the pneumonic strain.  This is a more virulent strain of the bubonic plague.  Exposure to the plague from the rat-borne fleas is treated with antibiotics and has a higher survival rate than its cousin.  The pneumonic form, acquired via inhalation and human-human contact, is very highly fatal with death typically resulting within 24 hours of exposure if not treated.  The 60 deaths attributed to the pneumonic plague (84 deaths in total) were believed to be spread in part because of increasing political turmoil in the area resulting in poor hygiene and a decline in living conditions.

This mirrors much of what is believed to have happened during the Black Death.  Political and social instability, significant decreases in living conditions and healthcare availability created a perfect storm of underlying problems.  Perhaps the rat flea gets a bit of a reprieve.  Initial introduction via the rats is likely to have occurred with the more virulent strain of pneumonic plague taking over and doing the most damage.

Research continues and I look forward to hearing about it.